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B series
22/06/2022, 22:55 (Resposta editada pela última vez em: 22/06/2022 23:02 por nasasgriff156.)
Resposta: #1
B series
A motorcycle, often called a motorbike, bike, cycle, or (if three-wheeled) trike, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes: long-distance travel, commuting, cruising, sport (including racing), and off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and being involved in other related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is often a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross including dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes, scooters and mopeds, and many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing, including many series, such as B series, K series, G series and H series, which are not legal on the street in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well. Each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, and each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions (rear seats) is restricted.

Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components and systems for a motorcycle which results in the performance, cost, and aesthetics desired by the designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has standardised on a steel or aluminium frame, telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc brakes. Some other body parts, designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be added. A petrol-powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders (and less commonly, up to eight cylinders) coupled to a manual five- or six-speed sequential transmission drives the swingarm-mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft, or belt. The repair can be done using a Motorcycle lift. Motorcycle fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style. A streamlined, fully faired Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg‑US (0.50 L/100 km; 560 mpg‑imp) in the Craig Vetter Fuel Economy Challenge "on real highways – in real conditions". Due to low engine displacements (100–200 cc (6.1–12.2 cu in)), and high power-to-mass ratios, motorcycles offer good fuel economy. Under conditions of fuel scarcity like 1950s Britain and modern developing nations, motorcycles claim large shares of the vehicle market. In the United States, the average motorcycle fuel economy is 44 miles per US gallon (19 km per liter).
Very high fuel economy equivalents are often derived by electric motorcycles. Electric motorcycles are nearly silent, zero-emission electric motor-driven vehicles. Operating range and top speed are limited by battery technology. Fuel cells and petroleum-electric hybrids are also under development to extend the range and improve performance of the electric drive system. Two-wheeled motorcycles stay upright while rolling due to a physical property known as conservation of angular momentum in the wheels. Angular momentum points along the axle, and it "wants" to stay pointing in that direction. Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a motorcycle performs in given conditions. For example, one with a longer wheelbase provides the feeling of more stability by responding less to disturbances.[48] Motorcycle tyres have a large influence over handling. Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method known as countersteering, in which the rider momentarily steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of the desired turn. This practice is counterintuitive and therefore often confusing to novices – and even many experienced motorcyclists With such short wheelbase, motorcycles can generate enough torque at the rear wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the road. These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stoppies (or endos) respectively.

Various features and accessories may be attached to a motorcycle either as OEM (factory-fitted) or aftermarket. Such accessories are selected by the owner to enhance the motorcycle's appearance, safety, performance, or comfort, and may include anything from mobile electronics to sidecars and trailers. A motorcycle is broadly defined by law in most countries for the purposes of registration, taxation and rider licensing as a powered two-wheel motor vehicle. Most countries distinguish between mopeds of 49 cc and the more powerful, larger vehicles (scooters do not count as a separate category). Many jurisdictions include some forms of three-wheeled cars as motorcycles. In Nigeria, motorcycles, popularly referred to as Okada have been subject of many controversies with regards to safety and security followed by restriction of movement in many states. Recently, it was banned in Lagos - Nigeria's most populous city.

Modern motorcycle industry has introduced a large number of advanced technologies. For example, the flhrc-1 motorcycle launched by Harley Davidson company in 1998 adopts the world's top automobile engine technology - fuel injection device, which not only improves the power, but also is more suitable for the environmental protection needs of contemporary society, becoming the pioneer of motorcycles in the 21st century. The application of high and new technologies such as optical communication electronic control system, radar ranging automatic control system, electronic map guidance system and acoustic electronic silencing system in some concept motorcycles makes modern motorcycles more perfect and shocking.

Slippers are a kind of shoes. The heel is empty, and only the front has a toe. Most of them are flat bottoms. The material is often quite light and soft leather, plastic, cloth and so on. The types of slippers are distinguished according to the wearing occasion and performance purpose. For example, beach slippers are not made of cloth, but plastic. This is for the sake of being waterproof and easy to clean. The toe type is also specially designed. It is often called pinch slippers, which is what we call flip flops. However, indoor slippers in winter may use fluffy cloth instead of plastic in order to keep warm, so that people can enjoy better in the room. There are also anti-skid slippers for bathing, as well as anti-static slippers commonly used in electronic factories and dust-free workshops.

There are many kinds of sole materials for slippers, such as TPR sole, which is the most common. The process of TPR sole is divided into TPR soft sole, TPR hard ground, TPR side seam sole, and rubber sole, ox tendon sole, blow molding sole and adhesive sole mentioned by many friends. The advantage of TPR bottom is that it is soft, waterproof and has certain wear resistance. It feels like the familiar rubber feel. Another is to press the cloth on the basis of TPR to increase the durability of TPR; Many people will feel strange at the bottom of EVA. In fact, people who often go on business and those who love watching Korean dramas are not strange. Hotel trailers are basically made with this bottom. The slippers worn by many families in Korean dramas are also of this kind. The advantages of EVA bottom are: firm, light, easy to clean, comfortable, breathable, soft and colorful. Easy to process, easy to bond and not easy to fall off. Suitable for beach shoes, household leisure slippers, travel slippers, etc. Point plastic cloth bottom. This kind of cloth is not very popular in China, because many people find it inconvenient and waterproof. In fact, in foreign countries, this kind of bottom is also very common, especially Americans like it best. Most of them are used on animal shoes. Japan and South Korea also like to wear this kind of sole, because it has very good anti-skid performance, and because its mute effect is also used in many high-end hotels and hospitals. Soft, light and non slip. Therefore, there are many types of slippers, such as orthotic slippers.

Sandals are an open type of footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps going over the instep and around the ankle. Sandals can also have a heel. While the distinction between sandals and other types of footwear can sometimes be blurry (as in the case of huaraches—the woven leather footwear seen in Mexico, and peep-toe pumps), the common understanding is that a sandal leaves all or most of the foot exposed. People may choose to wear sandals for several reasons, among them comfort in warm weather, economy (sandals tend to require less material than shoes and are usually easier to construct), and as a fashion choice.

Sandals include a variety of styles: flat bottom, slope heel, high heel, fish mouth, bandage, herringbone, toe cover and so on. It is mainly worn barefoot, and can also be matched with socks. Sometimes the difference between sandals and other types of shoes is not obvious, but it is generally believed that sandals expose most of the feet, especially the toes. These shoes are ventilated and cool, and some simple styles are even similar to slippers; However, sandals and slippers are not the same: the bottom of sandals is thicker than slippers, with shoe tails, more exquisite design and more materials, and they can be worn in public places such as schools and some enterprise posts. There are also various types of sandals, such as orthopedic sandals, casual sandals, recovery sandals, etc.

Sandals are usually worn in summer, but they can also be worn in spring and autumn. Now there are sandals specially worn in winter. In fact, wearing sandals out of season is not a taboo, or even a manifestation of avant-garde innovation; But when pursuing fashion, you also need to pay attention to temperature and body. It's best to add a pair of socks on your feet to keep warm. Due to the constraints of traditional concepts or the rules and regulations of major social organizations, some kinds of sandals are the same as slippers: they are not suitable for sports activities, solemn occasions, or jobs in some industries; However, fish mouth shoes and sandals with high heels can usually attend most formal occasions. Even this style of sandals once became a symbol of elegance and grace for working women. In a word, sandals have gradually become a fashion dress rather than a simple summer dress.

Shoelaces, also called shoestrings (US English) or bootlaces (UK English), are a system commonly used to secure shoes, boots, and other footwear. They typically consist of a pair of strings or cords, one for each shoe, finished off at both ends with stiff sections, known as aglets. Each shoelace typically passes through a series of holes, eyelets, loops or hooks on either side of the shoe. Loosening the lacing allows the shoe to open wide enough for the foot to be inserted or removed. Tightening the lacing and tying off the ends secures the foot firmly within the shoe. The laces can be tied in different shapes, most commonly a simple bow. Traditional shoelaces were made of leather, cotton, jute, hemp, or other materials used in the manufacture of rope. Modern shoelaces often incorporate various synthetic fibers, which are generally more slippery and thus more prone to coming undone than those made from traditional fibers. On the other hand, smooth synthetic shoelaces generally have a less rough appearance, suffer less wear from friction, and are less susceptible to rotting from moisture. Specialized fibers like flame resistant nomex are applied in safety boots for firefighters.

Flip-flops are a type of light sandal, typically worn as a form of casual footwear. They consist of a flat sole held loosely on the foot by a Y-shaped strap known as a toe thong that passes between the first and second toes and around both sides of the foot or can be a hard base with a strap across all the toes (these can also be called sliders or slides). Orthopedic flip flops are one of them. The modern flip-flop has a very simple design, consisting of a thin rubber sole with two straps running in a Y shape from the sides of the foot to the gap between the big toe and the one beside it. They typically do not have a strap around the heel, although heeled varieties are available, as well as flip-flops designed for sports, which come with added support common to athletic shoes, with the thong between the toes. Most modern flip-flops are inexpensive, costing as little as $5 USD, or less in some parts of the world. They are made from a wide variety of materials, as were the ancient thong sandals. The modern sandals are made of more modern materials, such as rubber, foam, plastic, leather, suede, and even fabric. Thongs made of polyurethane have caused some environmental concerns; because polyurethane is a number 7 resin, they can't be easily discarded, and they persist in landfills for a very long time. In response to these concerns, some companies have begun selling flip-flops made from recycled rubber, such as that from used bicycle tires, or even hemp, and some offer a recycling program for used flip flops.
Sports shoes are designed and manufactured according to the characteristics of people participating in sports or tourism. Different from ordinary leather shoes and rubber shoes, the soles of sports shoes are generally soft and elastic, which can play a certain buffer role. Exercise can enhance elasticity, and some can prevent ankle injury. Therefore, when carrying out sports, most people should wear sports shoes, especially high-intensity physical sports, such as basketball, running, etc. In addition, knit waterproof sneakers are also very popular.

A compactor is a machine or mechanism used to reduce the size of material such as waste material or bio mass through compaction. A trash compactor is often used by a home or business to reduce the volume of trash it produces. A baler-wrapper compactor is often used for making compact and wrapped bales in order to improve logistics. Normally powered by hydraulics, compactors take many shapes and sizes. In landfill sites for example, a large tractor (typically a converted front end loader with some variant of a bulldozer blade attached) with spiked steel wheels called a landfill compactor is used to drive over waste deposited by waste collection vehicles (WCVs). WCVs themselves incorporate a compacting mechanism which is used to increase the payload of the vehicle and reduce the number of times it has to empty. This usually takes the form of hydraulically powered sliding plates which sweep out the collection hopper and compress the material into what has already been loaded. Different compactors are used in scrap metal processing, the most familiar being the car crusher. Such devices can be of either the "pancake" type, where a scrap automobile is flattened by a huge descending hydraulically powered plate, or the baling press, where the automobile is compressed from several directions until it resembles a large cube.

In construction, there are three main types of compactor: the plate, the rammer, and the road roller. The roller type compactors are used for compacting crushed rock as the base layer underneath concrete or stone foundations or slabs. The plate compactor, vibrating plate, or tamper, has a large vibrating baseplate and is suited for creating a level grade, while the rammer compactor has a smaller foot. The rammer, or trench rammer, is mainly used to compact the backfill in narrow trenches for water or gas supply pipes etc. Road rollers may also have vibrating rollers. In plates and rollers the vibration is provided by rapidly rotating eccentric masses. In smaller plates the vibration causes a tendency to move forwards, while some larger plates are provided with a directional control. In the rammer the foot is mounted on a sleeve that slides vertically in the leg. Inside the sleeve, a piston is driven up and down by the engine through a reduction gear, crank and connecting rod. Substantial coil springs above and below the piston connect it to the sliding sleeve. The connection between the sleeve and foot is at small angle so that the whole rammer leans away from the operator. The vibrating motion is therefore slightly off the vertical, and this gives the rammer a tendency to 'walk' forwards. The sliding joint in the leg is protected by a flexible bellows.

A ramrod (or scouring stick) is a metal or wooden device used with muzzleloading firearms to push the projectile up against the propellant (mainly blackpowder). The ramrod was used with weapons such as muskets and cannons and was usually held in a notch underneath the barrel. Bullets that did not fit snugly in the barrel were often secured in place by a wad of paper or cloth, but either way, ramming was necessary to place the bullet securely at the rear of the barrel. Ramming was also needed to tamp the powder so that it would explode properly instead of fizzle (this was a leading cause of misfires). The ramrod could also be fitted with tools for various tasks such as cleaning the weapon, or retrieving a stuck bullet. Cap and ball revolvers were loaded a bit like muzzleloaders—powder was poured into each chamber of the cylinder from the muzzle end, and a bullet was then squeezed in. Such handguns usually had a ramming mechanism built into the frame. The user pulled a lever underneath the barrel of the pistol, which pushed a rammer into the aligned chamber.

With the development of modern mechanical processing industry, the requirements for cutting quality and accuracy are constantly improving, and the requirements for improving production efficiency, reducing production cost and having high intelligent automatic cutting function are also improving. The development of NC cutting machine must meet the requirements of the development of modern mechanical processing industry. Cutting machine is divided into flame cutting machine, plasma cutting machine, laser cutting machine, water cutting, etc. Laser cutting machine has the fastest efficiency, the highest cutting accuracy and generally small cutting thickness. The cutting speed of plasma cutting machine is also very fast, and the cutting surface has a certain slope. Flame cutting machine needle for thick carbon steel material. Cutting machines are used in metal and non-metal industries. Generally speaking, non-metal industries are divided in detail, such as stone cutting machines for cutting stone, concrete cutters, water cutting machines, sawtooth cutting machines, laser cutting machines for cutting cloth and plastic, chemical fiber products, blade cutting machines, flame cutting machines, plasma cutting machines for cutting metal materials, and NC cutting machines in flame cutting machines, And manual. Manual includes small sports car, semi-automatic, pure manual, CNC, gantry CNC cutting machine, cantilever CNC cutting machine, desktop CNC cutting machine, intersecting line CNC cutting machine, etc.

The trowel machine is also known as the light receiver. Its main structure is a trowel rotor driven by gasoline engine, and a trowel is installed on the bottom of the cross in the middle of the rotor. The tilt direction of the spatula is consistent with the rotation direction of the rotor. The triangular belt driven by the gasoline engine rotates the spatula rotor. When operating, start the fire first, hold the joystick, and push forward together to move forward, and pull back together to move backward. It can do 100 ~ 300m2 per hour on average, which can improve the work efficiency by more than 30 times compared with manual troweling. It is a coarse and fine troweling machine for concrete surface. The surface of machine construction is smoother and smoother than that of manual construction, which can greatly improve the compactness and wear resistance of concrete surface, and improve the work efficiency by more than 10 times compared with manual operation. The ground troweling machine can be widely used for slurry lifting, troweling and troweling of the concrete surface of high-standard workshops, warehouses, parking lots, squares, airports and frame buildings. It is the preferred tool in concrete construction.

Road construction machinery is a kind of machinery used to build and maintain roads. It is also called "road machinery". There are mainly circuit breakers, bulldozers, scrapers, leveling machines, loaders, rollers, etc. When the pavement needs to be paved, there are pavement engineering machinery such as pavement material preparation and paving machinery, as well as auxiliary engineering machinery such as lifting, transportation and stone processing.

Gasoline engine is an engine that uses gasoline as fuel to convert internal energy into kinetic energy. Due to the small viscosity and fast evaporation of gasoline, gasoline can be injected into the cylinder with the gasoline injection system. After being compressed to a certain temperature and pressure, it can be ignited with a spark plug to expand the gas and do work. Gasoline engine is characterized by high speed, simple structure, light weight, low cost, stable operation and convenient use and maintenance. Gasoline engines are widely used in cars, especially small cars. It includes many gasoline engine accessories. The engine body is the assembly matrix of all parts of the engine. It includes cylinder head, cylinder block and lower crankcase (oil pan). The cylinder head and the inner wall of the cylinder block together form a part of the combustion chamber. Many parts of the body are components of other systems. Crank and connecting rod mechanism is the mechanism by which the engine generates and transmits power. Through it, the linear reciprocating motion of the piston is transformed into the rotary motion of the crankshaft to output power. It includes piston, piston pin, connecting rod, crankshaft with flywheel and cylinder block.

Corrugated is the structural form of building materials, which can be made of a variety of special materials. It is mostly made of aluminum, which is used for anti-corrosion and thermal insulation. The dimensions of corrugated are divided into: A, B, C, E and F. Corrugated plate and corrugated aluminum plate are applicable to the roof, wall and internal and external wall decoration of industrial and civil buildings, warehouses, special buildings and long-span steel structure houses. Corrugated aluminum plate (corrugated aluminum plate) has the characteristics of light weight, high strength, rich color, convenient and fast construction, earthquake resistance, fire prevention, rain proof, long service life and maintenance free. It has been widely used. There have been many plastic extrusion corrugated boards, corrugated aluminum plates and corrugated aluminum plates, including transparent, opaque and colored, and multilayer composite hollow. Because of its good plasticity, it can better meet the requirements of various architectural shapes, but compared with the performance of service life, beauty and durability, color steel corrugated board is better. Corrugated machine is a machine that presses the base paper into corrugated shape through the corrugated wheel on it. It is an important part of corrugated board production line.

The machine is composed of vacuum suction hood, paper guide copper negative, air suction pipe and muffler. The working principle is that the base paper adjusts the tension through the paper guide roller, the anticipating wheel controls the temperature, enters the corrugated channel between the heated upper and lower corrugations through the upper and lower corrugation tops, presses and irons into a corrugated shape at the center of the upper and lower corrugation rollers, and is shaped after being pasted. The corrugated paper gradually pastes with the heating of the paste during the continuous operation of the upper and lower corrugations, and is connected with the center of the upper and lower corrugation rollers and the pressure roller, At the same time, after the temperature is controlled by the preheating roller, the face paper reaching the pressure roller is composite dried. Therefore, the corrugator conveying system operates at high speed to continuously produce various corrugated paperboards. This also includes a lot of corrugated machine spares.

Corrugated board production line, referred to as corrugated line for short, is the key production equipment of corrugated box production enterprises. Corrugated board production line is the most important production line equipment in carton packaging enterprises, including wet end equipment, cadre equipment, production management system and other important components. According to the corrugated board production process, the corrugated board production line is composed of two relatively independent process sections: wet end equipment and cadre equipment. The wet end equipment mainly includes base paper holder, automatic paper receiving machine, preheating preset, single-sided corrugated machine, paper conveying overpass, gluing machine, double-sided machine, etc. the wet end equipment makes corrugated base paper into three, five and seven layers of corrugated board with different corrugated type combinations; Cadre equipment mainly includes rotary cutting machine, longitudinal cutting indentation machine, cross cutting machine, stacking machine, etc. cadre equipment will perform longitudinal cutting indentation, cross cutting and stacking of corrugated board according to the order requirements. Corrugated board production line is the key production equipment of corrugated box production enterprises. Facing the increasingly fierce market competition and the requirements of corrugated box users for large order specifications, small quantity and fast delivery, corrugated box enterprises must improve the production management level of corrugated board production line by improving the automation degree of corrugated board production line, so as to improve quality, improve efficiency, save energy, save manpower and reduce consumables For the purpose of reducing waste products, cadre equipment is the key to achieve this goal. Corrugated box enterprises should comprehensively upgrade and transform the cadre equipment of the old production line, and the new production line should be equipped with fully automatic cadre equipment with production management system.

Corrugated line is the abbreviation of corrugated board production line. It is a flow line composed of web base paper through processes such as pressing corrugated, gluing, bonding, dividing paper and pressing line, transverse cutting into standard paperboard, and finally stacking and output. For example, the single-sided corrugated paper production line is usually composed of web paper support, single-sided corrugated board forming machine and rotary paper cutting unit. It uses web paper materials and potato or corn starch adhesive to continuously produce and cut into single-sided corrugated board of required specifications. The produced board does not need to be dried or dried. At the same time, it can be used in combination with glue machine or veneer machine to produce corrugated board with more than three layers. The corrugated board production line is usually very long. For example, the five layer corrugated board production line includes equipment such as electric shaftless paper frame, paper loading trolley, face paper preheater, core paper preheater, heavy secondary gluing machine and so on.

In the whole corrugated board production line, the wet end equipment is the key equipment of corrugated forming, which mainly involves the influence of base paper, glue, steam and other factors on the forming quality of paper. Therefore, the problem to be solved is the quality of paperboard. The key equipment of the wet end, single-sided corrugating machine, should be technologically advanced equipment, positive pressure cassette type single-sided machine. The numerical display of adjustable gap and the control of gluing amount are very important. Among the cadre equipment, slitter is the equipment that affects the work efficiency, and its selection is very important. The knife in the slitting machine should be movable, and the dust-proof treatment of the cutting knife and wire pressing guide rail should be considered when purchasing Taiwan tile wire, because in actual use, the dust of grinding the knife will fall on the smooth guide rail, resulting in difficult movement of the knife or wire pressing wheel when arranging the knife and frequent shutdown. The minimum spacing between the crimping wheels shall be ensured to be within the actual value of 50mm cutter line positioning mode and cutter arrangement accuracy. Some manufacturers claim to be able to reach a few millimeters, but in practice, there will be an error of 1-2mm. Therefore, it is often detected by personnel, which is inefficient; Several ways of crimping wheel can meet the requirements of multiple types of crimping.

Dredging is the excavation of material from a water environment. Possible reasons for dredging include improving existing water features; reshaping land and water features to alter drainage, navigability, and commercial use; constructing dams, dikes, and other controls for streams and shorelines; and recovering valuable mineral deposits or marine life having commercial value. In all but a few situations the excavation is undertaken by a specialist floating plant, known as a dredger. Dredging is carried out in many different locations and for many different purposes, but the main objectives are usually to recover material of value or use, or to create a greater depth of water. Dredges have been classified as suction or mechanical. Dredging has significant environmental impacts: it can disturb marine sediments, leading to both short- and long-term water pollution, destroy important seabed ecosystems, and can release human-sourced toxins captured in the sediment.

In a "hopper dredger", the dredged materials end up in a large onboard hold called a "hopper." A suction hopper dredger is usually used for maintenance dredging. A hopper dredge usually has doors in its bottom to empty the dredged materials, but some dredges empty their hoppers by splitting the two-halves of their hulls on large hydraulic hinges. Either way, as the vessel dredges, excess water in the dredged materials is spilled off as the heavier solids settle to the bottom of the hopper. This excess water is returned to the sea to reduce weight and increase the amount of solid material (or slurry) that can be carried in one load. When the hopper is filled with slurry, the dredger stops dredging and goes to a dump site and empties its hopper. Some hopper dredges are designed so they can also be emptied from above using pumps if dump sites are unavailable or if the dredge material is contaminated. Sometimes the slurry of dredgings and water is pumped straight into pipes which deposit it on nearby land. These pipes are also commonly known as dredge hoses, too. There are a few different types of dredge hoses that differ in terms of working pressure, float-ability, armored or not etc. Suction hoses, discharge armored hoses and self-floating hoses are some of the popular types engineered for transporting and discharging dredge materials. Some even had the pipes or hoses customised to exact dredging needs etc. Other times, it is pumped into barges (also called scows), which deposit it elsewhere while the dredge continues its work, and it is also a good gold mining equipment.
A number of vessels, notably in the UK and NW Europe de-water the hopper to dry the cargo to enable it to be discharged onto a quayside 'dry'. This is achieved principally using self discharge bucket wheel, drag scraper or excavator via conveyor systems. When contaminated (toxic) sediments are to be removed, or large volume inland disposal sites are unavailable, dredge slurries are reduced to dry solids via a process known as dewatering. Current dewatering techniques employ either centrifuges, geotube containers, large textile based filters or polymer flocculant/congealant based apparatus. In many projects, slurry dewatering is performed in large inland settling pits, although this is becoming less and less common as mechanical dewatering techniques continue to improve. Similarly, many groups (most notable in east Asia) are performing research towards utilizing dewatered sediments for the production of concretes and construction block, although the high organic content (in many cases) of this material is a hindrance toward such ends.

The proper management of contaminated sediments is a modern-day issue of significant concern. Because of a variety of maintenance activities, thousands of tonnes of contaminated sediment are dredged worldwide from commercial ports and other aquatic areas at high level of industrialization. The dredged materials can be reused after using some dredge accessories and appropriate decontamination treatment. A variety of processes has been proposed and tested at different scales of application (technologies for environmental remediation). Once decontaminated, the material could well suit the building industry, or could be used for beach nourishment.

The dredger operates through a long pipe, like some vacuum cleaners, but on a larger scale. Ordinary suction dredgers have no tools to interfere with materials at the end of the suction pipe. A trailing suction hopper dredger (TSHD) trails its suction pipe when working. The pipe, which is fitted with a dredge drag head, loads the dredge spoil into one or more hoppers in the vessel. When the hoppers are full, the TSHD sails to a disposal area and either dumps the material through doors in the hull or pumps the material out of the hoppers. Some dredges also self-offload using drag buckets and conveyors. A cutter-suction dredger's (CSD) suction tube has a cutting mechanism at the suction inlet. The cutting mechanism loosens the bed material and transports it to the suction mouth. The dredged material is usually sucked up by a wear-resistant centrifugal pump and discharged either through a pipe line or to a barge. Cutter-suction dredgers are most often used in geological areas consisting of hard surface materials (for example gravel deposits or surface bedrock) where a standard suction dredger would be ineffective. They can, if sufficiently powerful, be used instead of underwater blasting. A grab dredger picks up seabed material with a clam shell bucket, which hangs from an onboard crane or a crane barge, or is carried by a hydraulic arm, or is mounted like on a dragline. This technique is often used in excavation of bay mud. Most of these dredges are crane barges with spuds, steel piles that can be lowered and raised to position the dredge. A backhoe/dipper dredger has a backhoe like on some excavators. A crude but usable backhoe dredger can be made by mounting a land-type backhoe excavator on a pontoon. The six largest backhoe dredgers in the world are currently the Vitruvius, the Mimar Sinan, Postnik Yakovlev (Jan De Nul), the Samson (DEME), the Simson and the Goliath (Van Oord).[citation needed] They featured barge-mounted excavators. Small backhoe dredgers can be track-mounted and work from the bank of ditches. A backhoe dredger is equipped with a half-open shell. The shell is filled moving towards the machine. Usually dredged material is loaded in barges. This machine is mainly used in harbours and other shallow water.

In addition, a cutter-suction dredger's (CSD) suction tube has a cutting mechanism at the suction inlet. The cutting mechanism loosens the bed material and transports it to the suction mouth. The dredged material is usually sucked up by a wear-resistant centrifugal pump and discharged either through a pipe line or to a barge. Cutter-suction dredgers are most often used in geological areas consisting of hard surface materials (for example gravel deposits or surface bedrock) where a standard suction dredger would be ineffective. They can, if sufficiently powerful, be used instead of underwater blasting. As of 2018, the most powerful cutter-suction dredger in the world is DEME's Spartacus, which is scheduled to enter service in 2019. Therefore, dredge is also harvesting boat and service boat.

A centrifuge is a device that uses centrifugal force to separate various components of a fluid. This is achieved by spinning the fluid at high speed within a container, thereby separating fluids of different densities (e.g. cream from milk) or liquids from solids. It works by causing denser substances and particles to move outward in the radial direction. At the same time, objects that are less dense are displaced and move to the centre. In a laboratory centrifuge that uses sample tubes, the radial acceleration causes denser particles to settle to the bottom of the tube, while low-density substances rise to the top. A centrifuge can be a very effective filter that separates contaminants from the main body of fluid. Industrial scale centrifuges are commonly used in manufacturing and waste processing to sediment suspended solids, or to separate immiscible liquids. An example is the cream separator found in dairies. Very high speed centrifuges and ultracentrifuges able to provide very high accelerations can separate fine particles down to the nano-scale, and molecules of different masses. Large centrifuges are used to simulate high gravity or acceleration environments (for example, high-G training for test pilots). Medium-sized centrifuges are used in washing machines and at some swimming pools to draw water out of fabrics. Gas centrifuges are used for isotope separation, such as to enrich nuclear fuel for fissile isotopes.

The floor centrifuge has the advantages of beautiful appearance, large capacity, small volume and complete functions. It has the advantages of stable performance, adjustable speed, automatic balance adjustment, low temperature rise, high efficiency and wide applicability. The product is suitable for qualitative analysis of serum, plasma and urea in pharmaceutical products, blood stations, clinical trials and biochemical laboratories. Its principle is to separate and concentrate particles in suspension with different physical properties (such as mass, buoyancy, sedimentation coefficient, etc.) by using strong centrifugal force. It is brushless maintenance free DC motor or AC variable frequency drive. The refrigeratied centrifuge is cooled and temperature controlled by the compressor. The centrifugal precipitation of cells and biological macromolecules is realized by setting the centrifugal rate, centrifugal force, time and temperature. The floor centrifuge adopts brushless motor, module control and stepless speed regulation, which has the advantages of safety, reliability and durability. It is a fast separation equipment selected for biochemical experiments in medical, health, agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry, food, petroleum and other industries.

A laboratory centrifuge is a piece of laboratory equipment, driven by a motor, which spins liquid samples at high speed. It is mainly used in the field of experimental solid-liquid separation, and can also deal with small batch of non experimental solid-liquid separation operations. It uses the centrifugal force generated by the rotating head to separate the substances with different particle sizes and densities in the emulsion or suspension. Laboratory centrifuges are widely used in pharmaceutical, environmental protection, chemical, food, mining, teaching and other laboratories. Due to the small volume of laboratory centrifuges, compared with other industrial centrifuges, the materials used will be much less, so the cost is relatively low. Generally, large and small factories can produce and manufacture, so laboratory centrifuges have good advantages in cost performance in the place where centrifuge enterprises gather.

The haematocrit, is the volume percentage (vol%) of red blood cells (RBCs) in blood, measured as part of a blood test. The measurement depends on the number and size of red blood cells. It is normally 40.7–50.3% for males and 36.1–44.3% for females. It is a part of a person's complete blood count results, along with hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and platelet count. Because the purpose of red blood cells is to transfer oxygen from the lungs to body tissues, a blood sample's hematocrit—the red blood cell volume percentage—can become a point of reference of its capability of delivering oxygen. Hematocrit levels that are too high or too low can indicate a blood disorder, dehydration, or other medical conditions. An abnormally low hematocrit may suggest anemia, a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells, while an abnormally high hematocrit is called polycythemia. Both are potentially life-threatening disorders. Haematocrit centrifuges are used to measure the volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.

Bench Top ;Centrifuge is a machine that uses centrifugal force to separate components in liquid and solid particles or liquid and liquid mixture. The Bench Top ;Centrifuge is mainly used to separate the solid particles in the suspension from the liquid; Or separate two liquids in the emulsion with different densities and immiscible with each other (for example, cream is separated from milk); It can also be used to remove liquids from wet solids, such as drying wet clothes with a washing machine; The special overspeed tubular separator can also separate gas mixtures with different densities; Taking advantage of the different settling velocity of solid particles with different density or particle size in liquid, some settling bench centrifuges can also classify solid particles according to density or particle size. It can be used in medical fields, such as hospitals, centers for Disease Control and prevention, blood centers, animal husbandry and aquatic products, and radioimmunoassay; Research fields such as colleges and universities, research institutes, R & D centers, laboratories (which can be used for the separation of subcellular organelles, proteins, viruses and other samples), etc.

Crude oil centrifuge is designed for the determination of water and sediment in crude oil (centrifugal method) and manufactured according to the requirements of GB / t6533-86 standard. It uses centrifugal separation to determine water and sediment in crude oil. It is an ideal separation equipment for water determination in oil exploitation industry and scientific research institutions. It uses large screen liquid crystal display (LCD) and digital tube display (LED) (purchased by customers), which can display rotor number, speed, time, temperature, centrifugal force, addition and subtraction rate and fault information. The annular heater is adopted, which can heat quickly and evenly, and has the functions of temperature control and constant temperature, so as to meet the requirements of the oil industry for the temperature of the "host". In addition, the strong rectangular frequency conversion motor is adopted, which has stable and fast lifting speed, long service life, no daily maintenance and low noise, which greatly improves the stability of the instrument. The centrifugal tube is made by special process, and the glass centrifugal tube will not break during operation. The centrifugal pipe has been widely used in Daqing Oilfield. It is equipped with fault self diagnosis system, which can automatically detect overspeed, overtemperature, imbalance, door cover self-locking and other faults, and display fault information in the display window to improve the safety performance of the instrument.

A heat exchanger is a system used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. Heat exchangers are used in both cooling and heating processes. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and sewage treatment. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat sink, which is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant.

One of the widest uses of heat exchangers is for refrigeration and air conditioning. This class of heat exchangers is commonly called air coils, or just coils due to their often-serpentine internal tubing, or condensers in the case of refrigeration, and are typically of the finned tube type. Liquid-to-air, or air-to-liquid HVAC coils are typically of modified crossflow arrangement. In vehicles, heat coils are often called heater cores. On the liquid side of these heat exchangers, the common fluids are water, a water-glycol solution, steam, or a refrigerant. For heating coils, hot water and steam are the most common, and this heated fluid is supplied by boilers, for example. For cooling coils, chilled water and refrigerant are most common. Chilled water is supplied from a chiller that is potentially located very far away, but refrigerant must come from a nearby condensing unit. When a refrigerant is used, the cooling coil is the evaporator, and the heating coil is the condenser in the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. HVAC coils that use this direct-expansion of refrigerants are commonly called DX coils. Some DX coils are "microchannel" type. On the air side of an HVAC coil, there is a significant difference between coils used for heating and coils used for cooling. Because of the hygrometer, the air being cooled will often condense out moisture, unless it is a very dry airflow. Heating some air increases the airflow's ability to hold moisture. Therefore, the heating coil does not need to consider moisture condensation on the air side, but the cooling coil must be adequately designed and selected to handle its specific latent (moisture) and explicit (cooling) loads. The water removed is called condensate.

Heat exchangers are generally made of metal materials, among which carbon steel and low alloy steel are mostly used to manufacture medium and low pressure heat exchangers; in addition to stainless steels mainly used for different corrosion-resistant conditions, austenitic stainless steels can also be used as heat exchangers. High and low temperature materials; copper, aluminum and their alloys are mostly used to manufacture low temperature heat exchangers; nickel alloys are used under high temperature conditions; in addition to gasket parts, non-metallic materials have also begun to be used to manufacture non-metallic materials, corroding heat exchangers, such as Graphite heat exchanger, fluoroplastic heat exchanger, glass heat exchanger, etc.

A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. Construction methods and materials may be chosen to suit the pressure application, and will depend on the size of the vessel, the contents, working pressure, mass constraints, and the number of items required. Pressure vessels can be dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Consequently, pressure vessel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country. Design involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature, safety factor, corrosion allowance and minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture). Construction is tested using nondestructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests. Hydrostatic pressure tests usually use water, but pneumatic tests use air or another gas. Hydrostatic testing is preferred, because it is a safer method, as much less energy is released if a fracture occurs during the test (water does not greatly increase its volume when rapid depressurization occurs, unlike gases, which expand explosively). Mass or batch production products will often have a representative sample tested to destruction in controlled conditions for quality assurance. Pressure relief devices may be fitted if the overall safety of the system is sufficiently enhanced.

In most countries, vessels over a certain size and pressure must be built to a formal code. In the United States that code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). In Europe the code is the Pressure Equipment Directive. Information on this page is mostly valid in ASME only.[clarification needed] These vessels also require an authorized inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and each vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel, such as maximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal temperature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (through the National Board), and American Society of Mechanical Engineers's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp). The nameplate makes the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel. A special application is pressure vessels for human occupancy, for which more stringent safety rules apply.

Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of sections of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually employed. A common design is a cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes are frequently either hemispherical or dished (torispherical). More complicated shapes have historically been much harder to analyze for safe operation and are usually far more difficult to construct. Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness, and is the ideal shape to hold internal pressure. However, a spherical shape is difficult to manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylindrical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure vessels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for the shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestructive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pressure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by a virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Symptoms of COVID‑19 are variable, but often include fever, cough, headache, fatigue, breathing difficulties, loss of smell, and loss of taste. Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. At least a third of people who are infected do not develop noticeable symptoms. Of those people who develop symptoms noticeable enough to be classed as patients, most (81%) develop mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging), and 5% suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction). Older people are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. Some people continue to experience a range of effects (long COVID) for months after recovery, and damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.

COVID‑19 transmits when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets and small airborne particles containing the virus. The risk of breathing these in is highest when people are in close proximity, but they can be inhaled over longer distances, particularly indoors. Transmission can also occur if splashed or sprayed with contaminated fluids in the eyes, nose or mouth, and, rarely, via contaminated surfaces. People remain contagious for up to 20 days, and can spread the virus even if they do not develop symptoms. Several COVID-19 testing methods have been developed to diagnose the disease. The standard diagnostic method is by detection of the virus's nucleic acid by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), or by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) from a nasopharyngeal swab. Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmission. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

Kidney function refers to the function of the kidney to excrete metabolic waste in the body and maintain the stability and acid-base balance of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and calcium. The examination of renal function includes blood creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, blood and urine β 2-microglobulin, urinary albumin, urinary immunoglobulin G, urinary secretory immunoglobulin A, etc. Kidney is one of the indispensable organs in human body. It forms the urinary system together with ureter, bladder and urethra. The kidney is a pair of parenchymal organs, one on the left and one on the right. They are located on both sides of the spine and close to the posterior abdominal wall. Because this part is located at the waist, people commonly call the kidney "waist". The kidney looks like a broad bean with a smooth surface. Each kidney is 10 ~ 12cm long, 5 ~ 6cm wide, 3 ~ 4cm thick and weighs 120 ~ 150g.

The kidney has three basic functions: (1) Produce urine and excrete metabolites. The body produces a variety of wastes in the process of metabolism. Most of the wastes are discharged with urine through glomerular blood filtration and secretion of renal tubules; (2) Maintain fluid balance and acid-base balance in the body. Through the filtration of glomerulus and the reabsorption and secretion of renal tubules, the kidney discharges excess water in the body, regulates acid-base balance and maintains the stability of internal environment; (3) Endocrine function.① Secrete renin, prostaglandin and kinin. Blood pressure is regulated by renin angiotensin aldosterone system and kallikrein bradykinin prostaglandin system; ② Erythropoietin stimulates bone marrow hematopoiesis; ③ Active VitD3. Regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism; ④ Many endocrine hormone degradation sites - such as insulin, gastrointestinal hormones, etc. When renal function is not complete, these hormones T1 / 2 are significantly prolonged, resulting in metabolic disorders; ⑤ Target organ of extrarenal hormone. Such as parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, etc. It can affect and regulate renal function.

Thyroid gland is a very important gland in vertebrates and belongs to endocrine organ. In mammals, it is located below the thyroid cartilage of the neck and on both sides of the trachea. The human thyroid gland is shaped like a butterfly, like a shield, so it is named after it. Thyroid gland is the largest endocrine gland in adults, located in the front of the neck, brownish red, in "H" shape, weighing about 25g; It is composed of left and right leaves, isthmus and conical leaves. The left and right lobes of the thyroid gland are conical (the right lobe is slightly larger) and close to the side of the throat and trachea. The upper end reaches the middle of the thyroid cartilage and the lower end reaches the fourth tracheal ring. It is about 5cm long and 2.4cm wide. Its inner side is attached to the cricoid cartilage through the lateral ligament. Therefore, during swallowing, the thyroid gland can move up and down with the throat. The thyroid isthmus connects the left and right lobes and is located in front of the second to fourth tracheal cartilage ring. The thyroid isthmus of a few people can be absent. More than 60% of people extend a conical leaf upward from the isthmus. Conical leaves vary in length, and some can reach hyoid bone. It is a remnant of thyroid development. Near the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland, an independent mass of thyroid tissue can be seen, which is called parathyroid. The thyroid gland has two layers of capsule, the outer layer is thyroid capsule, which is composed of deep cervical fascia (anterior tracheal fascia), which is closely connected with the cervical vascular sheath to the outside; The inner layer is called fibrous capsule, which is the capsule of the gland itself. It directly adheres to the surface of the gland tissue and goes deep into the essence of the gland, dividing the gland tissue into several leaflets. The connection between thyroid capsule and fibrous capsule is loose and easy to separate, so intracapsular thyroidectomy can be performed clinically. From hyoid bone to thyroid isthmus or conical lobe, sometimes there is a small muscle bundle, called thyroid levator muscle, which can lift the thyroid gland. Therefore, thyroid function plays a great role in the human body.

A substance produced and released by tumor cells often exists in tumor cells or host body fluids in the form of metabolites such as antigens, enzymes and hormones. Tumors can be identified or diagnosed according to their biochemical or immune characteristics. What are tumor markers? The biochemical properties and metabolic abnormalities of tumor cells, so there are substances with qualitative or quantitative changes in the body fluids, excretions and tissues of tumor patients. These are tumor markers. Clinically, tumor markers are mainly used for the discovery of primary tumors, the screening of high-risk groups, the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors, the judgment of tumor development, the observation and evaluation of tumor treatment effect, and the prediction of tumor recurrence and prognosis.

Cardiac markers, also known as myocardial markers, are indicators of cardiomyocyte necrosis. Generally, specific values are obtained through laboratory examination. The main cardiac markers include creatine kinase, creatine kinase isozyme, troponin, myoglobin and so on. In case of myocardial cell necrosis, such as viral myocarditis or acute myocardial infarction, the above enzymes in the cells can be released into the blood. The rise of corresponding indicators can be seen during laboratory examination, suggesting the occurrence of myocardial necrosis. At the same time, according to the rising range of cardiac markers, we can indirectly understand the area of cardiomyocyte necrosis and the severity of the disease.

Floor tiles are commonly made of ceramic or stone, although recent technological advances have resulted in rubber or glass tiles for floors as well. Ceramic tiles may be painted and glazed. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and often a latex additive. The spaces between the tiles are commonly filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used. Natural stone tiles can be beautiful but as a natural product they are less uniform in color and pattern, and require more planning for use and installation. Mass-produced stone tiles are uniform in width and length. Granite or marble tiles are sawn on both sides and then polished or finished on the top surface so that they have a uniform thickness. Other natural stone tiles such as slate are typically "riven" (split) on the top surface so that the thickness of the tile varies slightly from one spot on the tile to another and from one tile to another. Variations in tile thickness can be handled by adjusting the amount of mortar under each part of the tile, by using wide grout lines that "ramp" between different thicknesses, or by using a cold chisel to knock off high spots. Some stone tiles such as polished granite, marble, and travertine are very slippery when wet. Stone tiles with a riven (split) surface such as slate or with a sawn and then sandblasted or honed surface will be more slip-resistant. Ceramic floor tiles for use in wet areas can be made more slip-resistant either by using very small tiles so that the grout lines acts as grooves or by imprinting a contour pattern onto the face of the tile. There are many kinds of floor tiles, and there is a lot of room for choice. According to the material, they can be divided into glazed floor tiles, full-body floor tiles (anti-skid tiles), polished floor tiles, porcelain floor tiles, etc. As a large-scale ground material, floor tiles use their own colors and textures to create different styles of living environments.

Wall tiles are an effective way to protect walls from water splashes. They are not only used on walls, but also on the edge trim of doors and windows. Also an interesting decorative element. Decorative wall tiles for baseboards. That is, the beautiful and protective wall base is not easy to be dirty by shoes or the feet of tables, chairs and stools. Tiles for pools and bathrooms should be beautiful, moisture-proof and wear-resistant. The wall tiles have a high degree of smoothness, a variety of color patterns to choose from, and are lighter and thinner than floor tiles. The glazed surface ensures the waterproof performance of the wall tiles and has a good anti-pollution ability. Tile is a wear-resistant, waterproof, beautiful and easy-to-clean material. Because the requirements for wear resistance are not as stringent as those for floor tiles, there are more choices to choose from. Ceramic wall tiles have low water absorption, strong anti-corrosion and anti-aging capabilities. In particular, its special moisture resistance, scrub resistance and weather resistance cannot be replaced by other materials. Its low price and rich colors make it an ideal decoration material for kitchen, bathroom and balcony walls in home decoration.

Mosaic tiles are the materials for laying bathroom walls and floors. It has been in use since the early 1980s. Mosaic tiles have made a comeback and become the darling of decorative materials in colorful forms, and are favored by avant-garde and fashionable families. Mosaic, one of the oldest known decorative arts, is a pattern created using small tiles or pottery pieces. In modern times, mosaic is more of a kind of ceramic tile. It is a kind of brick with a special way of existence. Generally, it consists of dozens of small bricks to form a relatively large brick. It is widely used in indoor small area floors, walls and outdoor large and small walls and floors due to its small size and colorful features. Because of the small size of the mosaic, some puzzles can be made to produce a gradient effect.

Rustic floor tiles are glazed tiles, which are composed of two parts: embryo body and glazed surface. Glaze is applied to the surface of the tile embryo body, and it is a kind of decorative material after high temperature and high pressure firing. Due to the deliberate grinding and irregular edges of the tile surface, the appearance of erosion over time has been created to create a sense of history and naturalness. This kind of floor tile foot feel is generally very comfortable and breaks through the tradition that the tile foot feel is not as good as the wooden floor. This kind of floor tile not only has a texture closer to that of stone, but also has the transparent and stone texture of jade. The quality indicators such as smoothness, anti-fouling, slip resistance, wear resistance and water absorption of ceramic tiles have also made new breakthroughs and become a first-class floor material in the ceramic tile market.

Glazed tile is made of high-quality ore raw materials, after screening and crushing, high-pressure molding, and high-temperature firing. With high strength, good flatness, low water absorption, folding resistance, frost r
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